Department of Biology

COURSE SYNOPSIS

BIO 101          GENERAL BIOLOGY I                                                                    (3 Units)

The scope of Biology and its place in human welfare including characteristics of life, concepts in biology, topical issues in biology and career opportunities.  Diversity and classification of living things. Cell structure and organization; functions of cellular organelles; diversity, general reproduction, interrelationship of organisms, heredity and evolution; elements of ecology and types of habitat. Differences between plants and animals. Variation and life cycles of plants to include non-vascular plants like algae, fungi, bacteria, viruses, bryophytes and pteridophytes. Varieties and forms, life cycles and functions of flowering plants.

 

BIO 102           GENERAL BIOLOGY II                                                                 (3 Units)

A generalized survey of the Animal kingdom based mainly on study of similarities and differences in external features; ecological adaptation of these forms. Structural, functional and evolutionary study of Protozoans, Coelentrates, Platyhelminthes, Nematodes, Annelids, Arthropods, Echinoderms and Molluscs. Evolutionary sequence in the form and functions of Protochordates and various classes of vertebrates. Introduction to ecology to include simple ecological facts in terrestrial and aquatic habitat and the relationships between an organism and its environment

 

BIO 103          GENERAL BIOLOGY PRACTICALS I                                          (1 Unit)

Introduction to Biology practicals, use of the microscope, cells structure, staining starch in plant tissues, algae, fungi, bryophyta-mosses and liverworts, pteridophyta, gymnosperms, angiosperms.

 

BIO 104          GENERAL BIOLOGY PRACTICALS II                                         (1 Unit)

Protozoans and coelenterates, worms and molluscs, arthropods, protochordates and fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals.

 

 BIO 201          INTRODUCTORY GENETICS                                                       (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite to BIO 401 and 403)

The meaning and importance of genetics in modern biology. Mendelian genetics. Probability and test of goodness of fit.  Quantitative inheritance.  Gene and chromosome theories of inheritance.  Linkage, crossing over and chromosome mapping.  Sex linkage. Physical and chemical nature of genes. Mutations and variations in Genome structure.  Introduction to microbial genetics, extrachromosomal and epigenetic systems.  Variation, natural selection and introduction to population genetics.  Human genetics and genetic analysis.                              

 

 

BIO 202          INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION                                  (2 Units)

Concepts and definitions of ecosystems. Biotic interactions, energy flow and nutrient Cycling. Trophic structure and productivity. Current concepts of evolution and origin of life to include Theories of evolution and Evidences supporting evolution.  Geological time scale of evolutionary events (Period epochs and events).  Genetic variation and separation.  Evolution of selected organisms particularly the Hominid line.

 

BIO 203          GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY                                                               (2 Units)

(Pre-requisite to BIO 206 and 306)

Physical and chemical processes in animal and plant including homoestasis, movement of materials across cell membranes, physiological principles of nutrition, food components such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins etc. Enzyme systems, nervous and hormonal coordination.

 

 

BIO 204          BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES                                                         (3 Units).

Microscopy, preparation of microscope slides, photometry, colorimetry, chromatography, conductometry, experimental design, electrophoresis, centrifugation. Detecting contaminants in food commodities students should be familiar with various analytical techniques in biology and use of monocular, binocular and stereo microscopes.

 

BIO 205         INTRODUCTORY DEVELOPMENTAL CELL BIOLOGY                       (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite to BIO 403).

Discovery of the cell and cell theory. Use of microscope in the study of cell, types of cells - Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; Similarities and differences, Structure and functions of cell organelles; Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA; Cell division -  Mitosis and meiosis, Cell reproduction: Sexual reproduction- Conjugation; asexual reproduction- binary fission, multiple fission, regeneration, budding, vegetative propagation, parthenogenesis, cloning.

 

 

BIO 206          SEED PLANTS                                                                                   (2 Units)

General characteristics, similarities and differences between the Gymnosperms and the Angiosperms. The various groups and orders [living and extinct] of gymnosperms. Studies of examples in each group of the living forms [morphology and reproduction inclusive]. General features of the angiosperms, leaf types, root types, stem types and functions. Taxonomy of some major economic tropical plants

 

 

BIO 207          VERTEBRATES                                                                                (3 Units)

Introduction of living chordates; Tunicate, Lancelet, Craniate, Vertebrate, fish, procera, Hyperoartia, study of Animals in Subplyhem vertebrata.  Characteristics of vertebrates.  General life history, ecology and morphology of tetrapods, Agnatha and Gnathostomata.  The vertebrate body.

 

BIO 208          HISTOLOGY                                                                                     (2 Units)

Definition of Histology, historical background and present day application of histology and histological techniques. Classification of plant tissue based on cell type. Animal tissue types- epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous, Types and Functions of muscles.Histochemistry:- definition scope and applications. Techniques in histology: Techniques used in the preparation of temporary and permanent tissue sections.  Sectioning techniques. Different kinds of stains used in plant histology

 

 

BIO 209          INVERTEBRATES                                                                            (3 Units)

Organization and biology of the following groups: Protozoan, Cnidaria, Ctenophores, Platyhelminthes, Nematodes, Annelids, Molluscs, Arthropods and Echinoderms.  Emphasis should be laid on species organization and biology as it relates to adaptation to the various environments where they are found. Biology and control of important plant parasitic invertebrates and their economic importance.

 

BIO 211          SEEDLESS PLANTS                                                                          (2Units)

History and importance of plant classification.  Outline of plant classification.  Diagnostic Features, Morphology and Biology of Viruses, Bacteria Fungi, Algae, Lichens, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes, and their economic importance.  Alternation of generations.  Fossils and their formations.

 

BIO 301          INSECT TAXONOMY                                                                      (2 Units)

Evolution and systematics of insects.  The success of insects.  Objectives and elements of classification.  Use of identification keys.  Diagnostic features of insect taxa.  Insect collection methods, identification and preservation techniques.

 

BIO 302          PLANT MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY                                               (2 Units)

Morphology of roots, stems and leaves. Cell types, tissues and primary growth in stems. Secondary growth in stems and stem modifications. The inflorescence. Flower- types, parts, functions, floral formula and floral diagram. Fruits and seeds- formation, types and dispersal.

 

BIO 303          GENERAL CYTOLOGY                                                                  (2 Units)

Light, phase-contrast, dark-field and electron microscopy, autoradiography and fluorescence with emphasis on principles and uses of the different types of microscope.  Study of the microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues and selected organs with emphasis on the relationship between structure and function.  Methods used in fixing, embedding, sectioning and staining of some invertebrates and vertebrates organs.  Microscopic examination and identification of smears, squashes and sections of the organs of animals/plants.  Histochemical studies of tissues.

 

BIO 304          LEATHER AND WOOD PRESERVATION                                                (2 Units)

Composition of hides and skins.  Agent of Decay. Use of short-term preservation as a major means of commercial handling of hides and skin.  Leather products and their use. Wood chemical composition and cell-wall ultra-structure. Classification.  Agents of decay, Air and Kiln seasoning of wood. Drying schedules, defects and methods of preservation. Unconventional methods of preserving wood structures by design. Vacuum pressure and their methods of wood treatment with preservatives.

 

BIO 306          ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY                                                                  (2 Units)

(Pre-requisite – BIO 203)

A general and comparative study of nutrition, osmoregulation, excretion, transport, respiration, movement and homoeostasis in animal, nervous coordination structure and functioning of nerve cells, nerve impulses, and the synapse – excitation, inhibition and computation; hormonal control or coordination their sources and functions, transmitter  substances, control and integration in invertebrates.

 

BIO 310          INSECT MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY                                   (3 Units)

Insect structure and function with particular emphasis on the insectintegument, body regions, antennae, mouthparts and legs including functional modifications of these parts. Aspects of insect biology including locomotion, nutrition, excretion, reproduction, life history, nervous system, insect hormones, bioluminescence etc.  Responses and behavioural patterns of insects.

 

BIO 312          PARASITIC PROTOZOANS AND HELMINTHS                          (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite – BIO 327)

General account of important features, life cycles, pathology and diagnostic techniques of diseases caused by parasitic protozoans and helminthes-amoebiasis, trypanosomiasis, trichomoniasis, taeniasis, fascioliasis, dracunculiasis,ascariasis, elephantiasis, hookworm disease etc. with special emphasis on vectors where applicable.

 

BIO 315          FIELD COURSE                                                                              (1 Unit)

(Pre-requisite BIO 202)

Sampling techniques in local habitats including methods of estimation of population sizes of microorganisms, plants and animals.  Behaviours in plants and animals.  General concept of field trip including the conduct, specific preparations, danger, precaution, equipment and methods. Vegetation mapping, types and characteristics of flora and fauna of each type.

 

 

 

BIO 316          POSTHARVEST MICROBIOLOGY                                           (3 Units)

Agents of postharvest diseases.  Methods of isolation from harvested produce using cultural technique, single spore isolation, microscopy. Growth of fungi on produce in humidity chambers.  Detection of metabolites produced in response to host-parasite relationship by enzyme  assays, chromatography, electrophoresis etc.  Antimicrobial substances produced  by harvested plants.  Guide to identification of postharvest pathogens.  Fungal spore and bacterial cell count techniques.  Storage of microbial cultures.  Methods of controlling post-harvest diseases.

 

BIO 319          GENERAL ECOLOGY                                                                  (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite BIO 202)

Ecosystem approach to the study of ecology.  Population and community dynamics.  Influence of man on the ecosystem.  Conservation of natural resources including current environmental issues like Biodiversity loss, climate change and pollution.  The future of man and the environment

 

BIO 327          GENERAL PARASITOLOGY                                                          (2 Units)

(Pre-requisite to BIO 312)

Animal associations, the nature of parasitism, the host-parasite relation, concept and the evolution of the parasite mode of life.  Advantages and disadvantages of parasitism. Host specificity and susceptibility.    Epidemiology and control of common tropical parasitic infections.  Transmission of parasites from host to host and the role of vectors in the transmission of parasitic diseases.

 

BIO 401          POPULATION GENETICS                                                              (2 Units)

(Pre-requisite – BIO 201)

Mendelian basis of population genetics. Quantitative genetics and the statistical basis of population genetics. Variations and their causes and usefulness in populations.  Hardy-Weinberg principle and its uses.  Gene and genotype frequencies.  Causes of changes in gene and genotype frequencies. Introduction to evolutionary processes, ecological genetics and environmental genetics.

 

BIO 402    Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) (4Units)     Industrial training assessed by industry-based supervisor. Students are expected to go through six months industrial training under the direct supervision of industry-based supervisor. Students are to write their daily activities in their log book which must be endorsed by industry-based Supervisor on weekly basis.

 

BIO 404    Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) (4Units)     Industrial training assessed by FUTA supervisor. Supervisors assigned by the University to visit students on industrial training during the six month of IT will assess the quality of work experience of the students as reported in their log book.

 

BIO 406     Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) (4Units)                       Student’s report and seminar presentation. Students will present seminar on their work experience and knowledge gained during industrial training and submit a detailed report. The seminar and report will be assessed.

 

 

BIO 403          CYTOGENETICS                                                                           (2 Units)

(Pre-requisite – BIO 201)

Cytogenetics and its importance/significance in genetic studies.  Cell structure and functions. Gametogenesis. Morphology and Karyotyping of chromosomes.Chromosome aberrations (structural and numerical).  Polyploidy and the role of chromosomes in evolution. Application of polyploidy in plant breeding.

 

BIO 405          METHODS IN POST HARVEST MICROBIOLOGY               (1 Unit)

Artificial culture and isolation of microbes using different types of media.  Media preparation.  Methods of detecting mycotoxins enzymes and other microbial metabolites in foods.  Sterility tests. Inoculation and transfer techniques. Storage of microbial culture. Guide to identification of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Microscopy techniques necessary for identification such as specimen preparation, staining, micrometry etc. Fungal spore and bacterial cell count techniques. Aseptic techniques.

 

 

BIO 407          WAREHOUSE AND STORE MANAGEMENT                         (1 Unit)

Store terminologies. Principles of store management, record keeping and store hygiene. Plant and equipment sanitation. Measures aimed at maintaining the quality of stored produce such as stacking techniques, controlled ventilation, produce – tracking system, cost-effective loading system, sampling and inspection of commodities.

 

BIO 411          PLANT PHYSIOLOGY                                                                     (2 Units)

(Pre-requisite- BIO 203)

Carbohydrate, protein and lipid, metabolism. Photosynthesis – importance, photosynthetic pigments, biochemistry of photosynthesis, metabolismofglycerate phosphate and triose phosphate; factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration – definition, cell respiration, gaseous exchange in flowering plants; Transport – movement of water through flowering plants, transpiration, translocation etc. Tropisms, nastic movements and flowering.  Plant – water relations, growth and growth regulation, dormancy, germination and senescence, hormones; Physiological aspects of crop yield.

 

BIO 413          PESTS OF STORED COMMODITIES                                             (3 Units)

Postharvest invertebrate pests of fish, wild life products, meat, tuber and root crops, vegetables, fruits, cereals, legumes, leather and timber. Urban pest. Their detailed life cycles, behavioural patterns and structural adaptations enabling them to act as efficient pests. The effect of environmental conditions on the abundance of invertebrate pests. Vertebrate pests and the damage they cause. Micro-organisms as pests, factors which influence or inhibit their continued spread. Identification of various stages of pest development.

 

BIO 415          STORAGE TECHNIQUES                                                            (2 Units)

Importance of storage.  Storage losses and factors affecting storage ability of commodities. Traditional and modern techniques used for the storage of diverse commodities with particular emphasis on dry and wet products. Principles and methods of preservation of food, fish, wildlife products e.g. drying, salting, refrigeration, canning etc. Quality of products in storage e.g. degree of ripening, physical, biological and chemical characteristics of major stored products. Pre and Postharvest storage techniques under different ecological and climatic conditions.  Field trips including visits to Warehouse, Stores, Feed mills Bakeries, Canning factories, Leather and wood processing factories as well as Pest control companies.

 

 

 

BIO 417          FOOD PRESERVATION AND PACKAGING                                (2 Units)

The microbiology of food preservation – heat processing, irradiation, low temperature storage, chemical preservatives, modification of atmosphere, control of water activity and compartmentalization. Contaminants as spoilage agents. Characteristics of packaging materials, migration of substances from packages into foods and their health implications. Packaging requirements for raw and process ed foods for local and foreign markets.

 

 

 

BIO 427          QUALITY CONTROL PRACTICES                                                           (2 Units)

Sampling and inspection of commodities. Quality control tests in foods including proximate analysis, floatation techniques, objectives and subjective tests. Organoleptic properties of foods. Food enzymes, their classification, use, action and factors affecting enzymes action. Chemistry of pesticides including insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides and residue analysis. Statistical methods of quality assurance.

 

BIO 429          ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR                                                                 (2 Units)

The basis of behaviour orientation mechanisms in animals, instinct and intelligence, feeding behaviour, social life, courtship and mating, migration and navigation, biological clocks and rhythms.

 

BIO 500          SEMINAR                                                                                         (2 Units)

This course shall involve literature search into relevant topics in biology. The objective is to give students some experience in reading, preparation, presentation and discussion of important topics in Biology and be familiar with current researches in this area.  The student is expected to submit a written report on these after oral presentation (seminar).  Topics to be presented shall be different from the student’s project topic, as approved by the seminar supervisor

 

BIO501           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                   (2 Units)

Basic principles of bio-illustration. Introduction to photography and use of photographs.  Preparation and use of visual aids for seminars, scientific reports, conferences etc.  Research methodology and experimental design.  Data analysis, presentation and interpretation.  Research proposal and report writing.  Referencing.  Mounting of plant and insect specimens for display and storage.

 

BIO 502          VECTOR AND PEST MANAGEMENT                                     (3 Units)

Vectors and Pests of economic importance e.g. insects, acarides, molluscs, rodents, birds, etc. Mechanism of action of pesticides and antimicrobial agents.  Lethal dose factors (LD/LC/LT50) and Probitanalysis.  Integrated Pest Management. Practical concept’s of pest management including spraying, fumigation, dusting and fogging. Pesticides formulation and application for vector and pest control.  Types of pesticides. Equipment used in vectors and pest control. The practical methods used in various institutions for pest control. Practical demonstration of control of some invertebrate and vertebrate pests of economic importance.

 

BIO 503          BIO STATISTICS                                                                            (2 Units)

Data collection, assembling, analysis and interpretations. Research methodology. Introductory statistical methods involving normal distribution, central tendencies, such as mean, mode, median, chi-square analysis, linear regression, analysis of variance, mean separation, its application to biological concept. Computer application for data analysis-spread sheet e.g. Excel, SPSS etc.

 

BIO 504          FORENSIC BIOLOGY                                                                   (2 Units)

Importance of forensic biology. Enhancement, recovery and identification of forensically important biological materials- body fluids, hairs, fibres, marks, finger prints, insects, plant materials and soil. Comparison and evidential significance of forensic materials. Recent advances and future directions in forensic biology research.

 

BIO 505          APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY                                                           (2 Units)

Biology and control of insects of medical importance such as Sand fly, mosquito, blackfly, tsetse-fly, housefly, ants, termites, grasshoppers, aphids, cotton stainers etc. Beneficial insects such as bees, silkworm, predators and parasitoids. Control methods including prevention and application of insecticides.  Types of insecticides and problems associated with their use. IPM.

 

BIO 509          APPLIED PARASITOLOGY                                                        (3 Units)

(Pre-requisite BIO 327)

Parasite nutrition – nature of interface between associating organisms. Cross- and cytopathology of parasites. Vertebrate defensive responses to parasites to include principles of serology and immunology in specific genera of parasites of economic importance. Counter measures to vertebrate defences. Immunization method against major parasitic diseases.  Zoonosis, epidemiology, pathology, life cycle and control of major zoonotic parasites with emphasis on tropical species

 

BIO 511          SOIL ECOLOGY                                                                             (2 Units)

Definition; soil types, soil profile, soil moisture, soil permeability, soil texture, soil porosity and soil formation.  Acidity and alkalinity, humus and soil fertility, physical and chemical nature of soil organisms.  Cycling of minerals and nutrient pools. Nutritional adaptations by soil animals, extraction procedures of soil organisms, sampling of the soil layers for different soil organisms, identification of soil organisms and ways of adaptation of these soil organisms.

 

BIO 512          APPLIED MYCOLOGY                                                                (3 Units)

Importance and method of attack of cellulose products, wood and leather by fungi in store. The biology of organisms associated with decay. Conditions for decay. Types of degradation. Prevention of decay. Damage to plastics, paints, etc.  Important moulds on stored dry foodstuff, perishables and other materials.  Types of damageMethods of attack.  Conditions that favour attack by moulds in storage structure and warehouses.  Methods of controlling mould attack in bookstores, textile stores, grain silos, warehouses etc.  Types of chemicals used to control moulds on stored foods.

 

BIO 514          SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY                                                             (3 Units)

The science of taxonomy/systematics: its history and development.  Theories  of biological  classification and their history.  The hierarchy of  categories and the higher taxa.  Taxonomic collections and the process of classification.  Taxonomic characters.  The methods of classifying (Archetypical and hierarchical), Zoological/Botanical nomenclature. The species concept.  The rules of zoological nomenclature.  Interpretation of the rules of nomenclature.  The methods for reconstructing evolutionary patterns/phylogenetic relationships. Taxonomic publications.

 

BIO 516          MOLECULAR BIOLOGY                                                                         (3 Units)

The structure conformation and other properties of proteins with special reference to x-ray crystallography and other physical techniques.  Polysaccharides glycoprotein cell-wall structures etc. and related biological macromolecules.  Structure and properties of DNA and RNA. Biogenetics of microtubules, microfilaments, Golgi and mitochondria.  Membrane – membrane interactions.  Introduction to bioenergetics and thermo-dynamics.

 

 

 

BIO 525          DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY                                                  (2 Units)

Concepts of growth and development. The principles of developmental biology and the approaches to developmental biology.  Gametogenesis and egg types.  Fertilization (to include contact and recognition and the regulation of spermatry; fusion of the genetic material and activation of the egg).  Cleavage, its accomplishments and the patterns of cleavage.  Gastrulation (to include the fate of the germ layers and patterns of gastrulation. Differentiation and Organogenesis; the extra embryonic membranes (chorion, amnion, allantois and the yolk) and the placenta. The regulation of developmental processes; cytoplasmic factors, role of the genes, influence of other cells (inducers), environmental factors and the interaction of non-genetic factors.  Current developments and future prospects of developmental biology.

 

BIO 599          STUDENTS’ FINAL YEAR PROJECT                                       (6 Units)

A research project involving an investigation on a selected biological problem in the following areas Entomology, Genetics, Parasitology, Storage Microbiology, Ecology and Physiology.  This is carried out over two semesters under the supervision/guidance of an academic staff within the department.  Student will be required to carry out literature survey on the topics, perform experiment and write up the project in form of a scientific report or paper (to be submitted before the end of the second semester.).  It is aimed at exposing the student to the technique of designing and executing research topic of relevance to national needs